When the Domain Name System was devised in the 1980s, the domain name space was divided into two main groups of domains.[7] The country code top-level domains (ccTLD) were primarily based on the two-character territory codes of ISO-3166 country abbreviations. In addition, a group of seven generic top-level domains (gTLD) was implemented which represented a set of categories of names and multi-organizations.[8] These were the domains gov, edu, com, mil, org, net, and int. 

There are also a few other alternative DNS root providers that try to compete or complement ICANN's role of domain name administration, however, most of them failed to receive wide recognition, and thus domain names offered by those alternative roots cannot be used universally on most other internet-connecting machines without additional dedicated configurations.
Web hosting services, on the other hand, run servers that are typically assigned only one or a few addresses while serving websites for many domains, a technique referred to as virtual web hosting. Such IP address overloading requires that each request identifies the domain name being referenced, for instance by using the HTTP request header field Host:, or Server Name Indication.
By definition, a domain name is simply a human readable form of an IP address. In function it is the destination that you type into a web browser in order to visit a website, such a www.google.com. Metaphorically, it is very similar to how you would scroll to a contact in your cell phone rather than manually dialing the person by entering their full phone number; the phone number would be an IP address and the saved contact would be a domain name. Always buy a domain with a reputable domain registrar.
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The article doesn’t list geographical location of the server as one of the consideration one should consider when choosing a hosting company. Isn’t geographical proximity, between the hosting server and the targeted population of the website, one of the parameters that Google’s algorithm uses when ranking a website? E.g. If I my website is in German and is targeting German people, wouldn’t it be better to host it in a server in Germany (ignoring, for the sake of this question, the issue of speed)? 

Many desirable domain names are already assigned and users must search for other acceptable names, using Web-based search features, or WHOIS and dig operating system tools. Many registrars have implemented domain name suggestion tools which search domain name databases and suggest available alternative domain names related to keywords provided by the user.
If you're planning to create a WordPress-powered site, there's no reason not to invest in WordPress-specific hosting. It's chock full of benefits. That said, a WordPress environment won't allow you to set up a non-WordPress site—that's something else to keep in mind, especially if you have a site in mind that will rely on specific frameworks, for example. In such instances, you'll want to go build your site on shared hosting, VPS hosting, or dedicated hosting services. And, if you want to start your own web hosting company, reseller hosting is the way to go.
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